2020, Cilt 36, Sayı 4, Sayfa(lar) 023-029
Genomic organization of SARS-CoV-2
Ali Rıza Babaoğlu1, Seval Bilge Dağalp2, Fırat Doğan3, Gülizar Acar Kırmızı4
1Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Viroloji Anabilim Dalı, Van, Türkiye
2Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Viroloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
3Hatay Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Viroloji Anabilim Dalı, Hatay, Türkiye
4Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Viroloji Anabilim Dalı, Erzurum, Türkiye
Keywords: ACE 2, coronavirus, genome, replication, SARS-CoV-2
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The Coronaviridae family consists of two subfamilies Orthocoronavirinae and Letovirinae. Orthocoronavirinae subfamily is examined in 4 different genus (genus) as alpha, beta, gamma and delta according to their serological and genetic characteristics. Although the viruses in the Coronaviridae family are enveloped, 80-220 nm in size and pleomorphic, they mostly exhibit a spherical appearance. These viruses have prominent and crown-shaped surface protrusions called trimer spikes, 20 nm long. Since coronaviruses have a large RNA genome, genomic changes such as mutation and recombination are more common in these viruses. n particular, the fact that bat CoVs can circulate in many different host species in nature may lead to an increase in the rate of recombination and mutation and the emergence of new pathogen CoVs. The reproduction of coronaviruses takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cell. These viruses first attach to cell surface receptors with S protein for replication. The main determinant of CoV's ability to infect the host and tissue tropism is the relationship between virus S protein and host cell surface receptor. SARS-CoV-2 binds to different regions of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). ACE2 is defined as an important cell surface zinc-binding carboxypeptidase for cardiac function and balancing of blood pressure. With the identification of SARS-CoV-2 as a etiological agent of a new pandemic, it has once again aroused interest in the molecular biology and pathogenesis of bat-borne coronaviruses. These studies have produced a lot of functional and structural information that can be used for the development of specific antiviral agents and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in a very short time.