pISSN:1309 - 6958       eISSN:2146 - 1953
2004, Cilt 20, Sayı 2, Sayfa(lar) 005-020
The Application of Various Salting Techniques on Pastırma Production and its Effects on the Quality
Ümit Gürbüz
Selçuk Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi, Besin Hijyeni ve Teknolojisi Anabilim Dalı, KONYA
Keywords: Pastrami, Salting, Quality
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This research was carried out in order to develop "salting technique" and to acquire new methods in the traditional pastırma production technique which is the national food product of Turkey. In this research, three types of sailing techniques named 'dry salting', 'dipping technique" and "brine injection technique" were applied to the meats which were divided into 3 groups. No changes were made in the rest of the stages of pastırma manufacturing. The drying process was realized in a controlled atmospheric conditions in terms of temperature, humidity and wind velocity. In 4 various production periods for each groups, the physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of the samples were evaluated In the fresh meat (ON]), pre-drying stage (DN2), pre-çemen application stage (DN3) and post-çemen application stage {DN4). In the fresh meat samples (DN^) used for pastırma production it was determined that there was no significant differences between the groups in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics. In the samples DNg, in those of which the dry salting technique used an average of 24.57 % protein, 6.36 % ash. 6.62 % salt; in those of which the dipping technique used an average ol 21.79 % protein, 7.61 % ash, 8.76 % salt; in those of which the brine injection technique used an average of 24.08 % protein, 5,09 % ash, 5.45 salt were obtained. In these samples, it was observed that the percentages of protein, ash and salt have been changed with regard to salting technique and the variances have occurred among the groups. However, any significant differences was not determined in the percentages of humudity and fat. pH and aw values and the weight loss of the samples. In the samples of DN3, in those of which the dry salting technique used an average of 9.64 % ash, 10.96 % salt: in those of which the dipping technique used an average of 11.77 % ash, 11.77 % salt; in those of which the brine injection technique used an average of 8.18 % ash. 8.84 % salt were determined. In these samples differences were observed in the percentages of ash and salt among the groups. In the final pastırma products of which all the production stages completed (DN4), it was concluded that the differences occurred in the physical and chemical characteristics were not significant according to the effects of salting technigues between the groups. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in the numbers of total viable colony, coliform groups, Staphylococcus -Micrococcus spp, Lactobacillus spp. and halophylic microorganisms yeast and mold • with regard to the effects of salting techniques during all of the production stages between the groups. In the mean time, in the samples of DN3, a stgnificanl difference was seen in the numbers of anaerobic microorganisms among the groups. !n this period, in the samples in which the dry sailing, dipping and brine injection techniques used, the numbers of anaerob microorganisms were found to be as 1.2x10® cfu/g, 2.7x10s cfu/g and 2,5x10scfurg respectively. But, coliform group microorganisms counted in the inital stage of pastırma production (1.3x10s -3.7X104 cfu/g) have not growen in the final pastırma samples. In the organoleptic evaluations, the flavor, color, appearance and texture of the pastırma samples produced with the dipping technique have obtained the highest points, as 8.10. 8.73, 8.50 and 8,47, respectively. Depends on the findings it was deduced that, the samples manufactured by dry salting technique showed similarity with the other two groups as regard to cotor and appearance, however, the pastırma samples produced by dipping technique had possessed higher qualifications than those produced by the brine injection technique, and there was not any significant differences between the groups as regard lo flavor and texture. As a result, it was decided that the experimental pastinmas made by the dipping technique have had highest quality compared to those produced by other methods, specifically with regard to sensorial qualities. Therelore, it would be suggested that the application of this "dipping technique" in pastırma industry may be beneficial.